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dc.contributor.advisorRoucou, Xavierfr
dc.contributor.authorRoostaee, Alirezafr
dc.date.accessioned2015-03-09T14:14:43Z
dc.date.available2015-03-09T14:14:43Z
dc.date.created2012fr
dc.date.issued2012fr
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11143/6650
dc.description.abstractAbstract: Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with progressive loss of structure or function of neurons which results in cell death. Recent evidence indicate that all neurodegenerative disorders, sporadic or transmissible, may have a common pathological mechanism at the molecular level. This common feature consists of protein aggregation and accumulation of harmful aggregates in neuronal cells resulting in cellular apoptosis and neurotoxicity. Neurodegenerative diseases can affect abstract thinking, skilled movements, emotional feelings, cognition, memory and other abilities. This diverse group of diseases includes Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In my project I worked on the molecular mechanism of protein aggregation, propagation and neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease and prion disease. Prion disease and PD are associated with misfolding and aggregation of PrPc and a-Synuclein (a-Syn), respectively. Despite being two important neurodegenerative disorders, molecular mechanisms of a-Syn or PrPC aggregation and amyloidogenesis are still unclear in PD and prion disease. Furthermore, the toxic protein species in PD have not been characterized yet. In this study we characterize the mechanism of a-Syn and PrPc misfolding in a physiological-like cell free condition in the absence of a-Syn aggregates, PrPc ggregated isoform (Pre's), denaturants or acidic environment. A number of studies indicate that dimerization of PrPc or a-Syn may be a key step in the aggregation process. To test this hypothesis we verified if enforced dimerization of PrPc or a-Syn may induce a conformational change reminiscent of the conversion of PrPc or a-Syn to PrPR' or a-Syn aggregates, respectively. We used a well-described inducible dimerization strategy where a dimerizing domain called FK506-binding protein (Fv) was fused to PrPc or a-Syn in order to produce chimeric proteins Fv-PrP and a-SynF'''. A divalent ligand AP20187 was used to induce protein dimerization. Addition of AP20187 to recombinant Fv-PrP in physiological-like conditions resulted in a rapid conformational change characterized by an increase in beta-sheet (13-Sheet) structure and simultaneous aggregation of the proteins. However, non-dimerized PrP formed 13-Sheet conformation in very slower rates. In the presence of AP20187, we also report a rapid random coil into 13-sheet conformational transformation of a-SynF" within 24 h, whereas wild type a-Syn showed 24 h delay to achieve P-sheet structure after 48 h. Electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that dimerization induced amyloid fibril formation after 48 h for both Fv-PrP and a-Syr?", whereas in the absence of dimerizing ligand AP20187, PrP or a-Syn converted into amyloid fibrils after 3 days or even later. Dimerization-induced Fv-PrP aggregates were partially resistant to PK digestion which is a characteristics of the naturally occurring PrPR'. The rates of amyloidogenesis in the presence of dimerization was also characterized by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence probing. Whereas the stable structure of Fv-PrP showed no ThT binding for over 60 h of incubation at 37°C, the addition of AP20187 to Fv-PrP resulted in a time-dependent increase in ThT binding. As for a-SynR, dimerization accelerated the rate of ThT binding and amyloid formation comparing to the slower amyloidogenesis rate of wild type a-Syn in the absence of dimerizer AP20187. The impact of dimerization on a-Syn aggregation was further determined by Fluorescence ANS probing, indicating a higher affinity of dimerization-induced a-SynF" aggregates for binding to ANS comparing to wild type a-Syn aggregates. These results indicate that dimerization increases the aggregation and amyloidogenesis processes for Fv-PrP and a-SynF". Both Fv-PrP and a-SynF" amyloids were successfully propagated in vitro by protein misfolding amplification (PMCA) cycle. These results ar in agreement with the theory that all protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases propagate with the same molecular mechanism. Neurotoxicity of recombinant Fv-PrP and a-SynF" aggregates was determined in cellulo and in vivo, respectively. Aggregates of Fv-PrP were toxic to cultured cells whilst soluble Fv-PrP and amyloid fibres were harmless to the cells. When injected to the mice brain, both a-Syni" and a-Syn pre-fibrillar aggregates internalized cells and induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of wild-type mice. These recombinant toxic aggregates further converted into non-toxic amyloids which were successfully amplified by PMCA method, providing the first evidence for the in vitro propagation of synthetic a-Syn aggregates. These results suggest an important role for protein dimerization in aggregation and amyloidogenesis, and therefore, in the pathology of PD and prion disease. The similarities between aggregation, amyloidogenesis and toxicity of PrPC and ct-Syn provide further evidence on the existance of a prion-like mechanism in all neurodegenerative disorders. // Résumé: Les maladies neurodégénératives sont associées à la perte progressive des propriétés structurales ou fonctionnelles des neurones, ce qui engendre la mort des cellules. De récentes études indiquent que tous les désordres neurodégénératifs, sporadiques ou transmissibles, peuvent avoir un mécanisme pathologique commun au niveau moléculaire. Ce dispositif commun se compose de l'agrégation de protéines, de la propagation des agrégats, et de l'accumulation d’agrégats toxiques dans les cellules neuronales, menant à l'apoptose et à la neurotoxicité cellulaire. Les maladies neurodégénératives peuvent affecter la pensée abstraite, les mouvements habiles, les sentiments émotifs, la connaissance, la Mémoire et d'autres capacités cognitives. Ce groupe divers de maladies inclut la maladie d'Alzheimer (AD), de Parkinson (PD), de Huntington (HD), les maladies à prions ou encéphalopathies spongiformes transmissibles (TSEs) et la sclérose latérale amyotrophique (ALS). [symboles non conformes]fr
dc.language.isoengfr
dc.publisherUniversité de Sherbrookefr
dc.rights© Alireza Roostaeefr
dc.subjectProtein misfolding cyclic amplificationfr
dc.subjectPMCAfr
dc.subjectParkinson's diseasefr
dc.subjectPDfr
dc.subjectFK506 binding domainfr
dc.subjectFvfr
dc.subject[alpha]-Synucleinfr
dc.subject[alpha]-Synfr
dc.subjectProtease-resistant prion proteinfr
dc.subjectPrP[superscript Res]fr
dc.subjectCellular prion proteinfr
dc.subjectPrP[superscript C]fr
dc.titleImportance of dimerization in aggregation and neurotoxicity of Prion and [alpha]-Synuclein in prion and Parkinson's diseasesfr
dc.typeThèsefr
tme.degree.disciplineBiochimiefr
tme.degree.grantorFaculté de médecine et des sciences de la santéfr
tme.degree.levelDoctoratfr
tme.degree.namePh. D.fr


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