Rôle de l'interleukine-1 dans les dommages cérébraux périnataux perspectives de neuroprotection
Brain damage, occuring in the perinatal period, are associated with several neurodevelopmental pathology, for example cerebral palsy. Those brain lesions arise from hypoxic-ischemic (HI) and infection/inflammation aggressions occuring at a crucial step during the neurodevelopmental period. There are currently no treatment designed to protect the newborn brain and alleviate the neurodevelopmental outcome. The common factor that is induce by both type of aggression is inflammation, and especially the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine, mainly interleukin-1 (IL-1). The association between IL-1 expression and the modulation of brain development is well-known but the causal link between the two is still a controversial manner. This is mainly due to the use of several different experimental model which are not always representative of the clinical reality. To get a better understanding of the role of IL-1 in perinatal brain damage we first characterized, both anatomically and histologically, an experimental model which combined both insults most often encounter in humans, to establish the reliability of the model to the human pathology (i.e. cerebral palsy). Using this model, we then demonstrated the central role of the IL-1 system in the genesis of brain damage. We also showed that the developmental stage corresponding to the preterm human newborn was more susceptible than their adult counterpart since the pro-inflammatory imbalance, in the agonist/antagonist ratio induced by the aggressions, was more obvious at this particular stage of development. This shift of the IL-1 system towards a pro-inflammatory state found in the premature brain was also detected in the placenta after maternal exposure to LPS at the end of gestation. The causal link between the IL-1 system and the neonatal brain damage was confirmed with the use of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) administered maternally which increased pups survival and protected them against microgliosis and motor deficits. We showed the therapeuthic potential of the IL-1Ra against both placental and neurodevelopmental defects when administered maternally, at the end of gestation. The implication of the IL-1 system in brain lesions was also studied directly on human newborn brain tissu presenting white matter damages reminiscent of cerebral palsy. Those data correlated with what was obtained using the experimental model showed the pro-inflammatory orientation of the IL-1 system, particularly in lesioned areas of the brain. In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis demonstrated the central role of the IL-1 system in the genesis of perinatal brain damage after exposure to HI and/or infection/inflammation and the therapeuthic potential of the prenatal administration of IL-1Ra.