Cartographie et classification du terrain à potentiel avalancheux des Chics-Chocs, Québec, Canada, à l'aide d'un système d'information géographique
Date de publication2007
Avalanche sites mapping and classification are tools that have been frequently used for managing avalanche risks. The use of geographic information systems (GIS) for such applications has great potential although it is still in development. The potential avalanche sites of the Chic-Chocs Mountains, Québec, Canada, was mapped with GIS technology, satellite images, aerial photos and 1:20 000 topographic maps. A forest map, including three different levels of forest density, was generated from the satellite image. A total of 59 zones composed of 249 sub-zones and paths, were localized and characterised by 16 attributes. Moreover, in order to build the institutional memory bank of one of the most frequented area by winter sports adepts in Québec, a system was created to allow future cataloguing of avalanche occurrences inside the potential avalanche location map. The database, currently having 48 events dated between 1987 and 2006, linked to a GIS allows the visualisation of the spatial distribution of avalanche occurrences and is the basis for the study of potential correlation topographic parameters and weather patterns. Another terrain analysis was also performed to address the challenge of the access restrictions of Mount-Albert in Gaspésie National Park. A terrain classification by exposure to avalanches based on Parks Canada's technical model was performed in order to help safer management of the park's winter activities. The results show that in surface, 41% of the terrain analysed has a high degree of exposition to avalanches. An English version of this thesis is summarized in annex 7.
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