Élaboration d'un modèle de gestion participative des aires protégées à l'aide d'une méthode d'analyse multicritères application à la réserve de faune d'Abokouamékro, Côte d'Ivoire
Kouassi, Ayékoê Charles
In developing countries, the ex-situ biodiversity conservation is facing more and more the revolt of local communities around the protected areas. The participative approach underlined by Agenda 21 (the global plan of sustainable development action of Rio's Conference in 1992) seems to be unavoidable in the prospect of the resolution of numerous conflicts which oppose local communities and those areas management structures. However, describing this conflictual status, some authors underline the lack of research for making operational the concept of participatory management. This acknowledgement, combined with evidence of failure in reglementarist and repressive approaches conducted by many forest administrations, leads to the following concern: how to set up a conceptual transition scheme to a partnership around protected areas management? This is the preoccupation to which this study proposed to answer. On the whole, local communities justify the conflict which opposes them to the forest administration first by the dissatisfaction of their complaints relating to the socio-community infrastructures and then by the impacts of the reserve on their potential agricultural and para-agricultural outcomes. They also evoke the sharp repressions of the forest administration and the insecurity due to the aggressions by the animals apart from the conventional limits of the reserve. However, the analysis of the investigations' data revealed other more subtle causes but having effectively accentuated the conflict around the reserve. They are: the low levels of education and sensitizing of local communities, their lack of implication in the decision-making processes and the mode of communication between them and the management structures. These causes were also confirmed by the individual interviews carried out near the extra-villager actors. The results of the investigations and the various analyses led to the proposal for alternative solutions of management. These alternative solutions relate to various aspects of management of the reserve which were blamed during the analysis of perceptions. They were evaluated by the members of a consultative committee which represents all the stakeholders. The evaluation was done through criteria defined in comparison with the relevant stakes directly related to the conflict. To seek the alternative solution of greater score in each aspect of management, the results of this evaluation were subjected to multicriteria analyses by Weighted Sum method and Fuzzy Set Model. With resulting from each method, the solution of greater score was adopted as the consensual solution for all of the stakeholder groups. To take into account uncertainties related to the estimate of the criteria and the matrix of evaluation, hundred (100) scenarios were described by Monte Carlo Simulation. It comes out from these analyses that the original consensual solutions remain the same ones and can be summarized by the requirements of stakeholder groups. Those consensual solutions also act as recommendations of the study."--Résumé abrégé par UMI.
- CUFE – Mémoires