Développement des indicateurs de la qualité de vie urbaine à l'aide de la télédétection à très haute résolution spatiale cas de la ville de Hanoi
Pham, Thi Thanh Hien
In studies of urban quality of life, the information that can be extracted from satellite images is limited by image resolution and by the standard method of pixel classification. Recently, very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite images have allowed the development of new remote sensing application, especially for complex urban areas. Despite of the numerous advantages of the object-oriented approach for VHSR image processing, the parameters used to carry it out, especially at the object creation stage, are not very well documented. Moreover, the evaluation of urban quality of life has never considered the perception of inhabitants of the zones under study. This dissertation therefore addresses these two issues and aims 1) at testing a systematic ways of achieving the best parameters for object-oriented classification with the software Definiens and 2) at quantifying the relation between objective indicators and perceived satisfaction. Hoàn Kiém district, in Hanoi, Vietnam, was chosen as our zone of interest. The image used for this study is a 0,7m spatial resolution Quickbird image.In the first part of the dissertation, we identify eight land occupation classes on the image: lakes, river, parks, groups of trees along streets, isolated trees, large road and residential blocks. Using these classes and additional cartographic information, we calculate nine quality of life indicators that correspond to two central aspects of urban life: commodity (urban services) and amenity (urban landscape). For each group of indicators, we carried out a principal components analysis to obtain non-correlated components. We then conducted a survey with eight city planning experts who live and work in the zone under study to obtain an assessment of the satisfaction of inhabitants towards their area of residence. The weight of each component in the determination of quality of life was achieved through an ordinal regression whose independent variables are the components and the dependent variable is the level of satisfaction as evaluated by the experts. The weights were then used to interpret the importance of our indicators for quality of life. Our results show that it is possible to classify land occupation types with a good accuracy: our average accuracy rate is 80.5%. As for the weight of quality of life indicators, our results allow us to make methodological and interpretative contributions. Contrary to previous work, our method allows us to evaluate the explanatory power of our model. Our regression shows that 22% of variation in satisfaction towards commodity and nearly 54% of variation in satisfaction towards amenity can be attributed to our indicators. As for the nature of the factors playing a role in quality of life, our results show that the relation between indicators and perceived satisfaction is not linear, which had never been shown in previous studies. Satisfaction towards commodity increases when transportation and health care are both sufficient. Satisfaction towards amenity is on the other hand largely determined by residential space, while vegetation plays a minor role, contrary to what was found in the urban zones of developed countries.