Modélisation de l'architecture des forêts pour améliorer la télédétection des attributs forestiers
The quality of indirect measurements of canopy structure, from in situ and satellite remote sensing, is based on knowledge of vegetation canopy architecture. Technological advances in ground-based, airborne or satellite remote sensing can now significantly improve the effectiveness of measurement programs on forest resources.The structure of vegetation canopy describes the position, orientation, size and shape of elements of the canopy.The complexity of the canopy in forest environments greatly limits our ability to characterize forest structural attributes. Architectural models have been developed to help the interpretation of canopy structural measurements by remote sensing. Recently, the terrestrial LiDAR systems, or TLiDAR ( Terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging ), are used to gather information on the structure of individual trees or forest stands.The TLiDAR allows the extraction of 3D structural information under the canopy at the centimetre scale.The methodology proposed in my Ph.D. thesis is a strategy to overcome the weakness in the structural sampling of vegetation cover.The main objective of the Ph.D. is to develop an architectural model of vegetation canopy, called L-Architect (LiDAR data to vegetation Architecture ), and to focus on the ability to document forest sites and to get information on canopy structure from remote sensing tools. Specifically, L-Architect reconstructs the architecture of individual conifer trees from TLiDAR data. Quantitative evaluation of L-Architect consisted to investigate (i) the structural consistency of the reconstructed trees and (ii) the radiative coherence by the inclusion of reconstructed trees in a 3D radiative transfer model. Then, a methodology was developed to quasi-automatically reconstruct the structure of individual trees from an optimization algorithm using TLiDAR data and allometric relationships. L-Architect thus provides an explicit link between the range measurements of TLiDAR and structural attributes of individual trees. L-Architect has finally been applied to model the architecture of forest canopy for better characterization of vertical and horizontal structure with airborne LiDAR data. This project provides a mean to answer requests of detailed canopy architectural data, difficult to obtain, to reproduce a variety of forest covers. Because of the importance of architectural models, L-Architect provides a significant contribution for improving the capacity of parameters' inversion in vegetation cover for optical and lidar remote sensing.