Étude électro-optique de l'interface n-alcanethiols GaAs(001) les phénomènes de surface et les applications en bio-détection à base de photoluminescence
Other titre : Electro-optic investigation of the n-alkanethiol GaAs(001) interface : surface phenomena and applications to photoluminescence-based biosensing
Marshall, Gregory M
Semiconductor surfaces coupled to molecular structures derived from organic chemistry form the basis of an emerging class of field-effect devices. In addition to molecular electronics research, these interfaces are developed for a variety of sensor applications in the electronic and optical domains. Of practical interest are self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) comprised of n-alkanethiols [HS(CH[subscript 2])[subscript n]R], which couple to the GaAs(001) surface through S-GaAs covalent bond formation. These SAMs offer potential functionality in terms of the requisite sensor chemistry and the passivation effect such coupling is known to afford. In this thesis, the SAM-GaAs interface is investigated in the context of a photonic biosensor based on photoluminescence (PL) variation. The scope of the work is categorized into three parts: i) the structural and compositional analysis of the surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ii) the investigation of electronic properties at the interface under equilibrium conditions using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, the Kelvin probe method, and XPS, and iii) the analysis of the electro-optic response under steady-state photonic excitation, specifically, the surface photovoltage (SPV) and PL intensity. Using a partial overlayer model of angle-resolved XPS spectra in which the component assignments are shown to be quantitatively valid, the coverage fraction of methyl-terminated SAMs is shown to exceed 90%. Notable among the findings are a low-oxide, Ga-rich surface with elemental As present in sub-monolayer quantities consistent with theoretical surface morphologies. Modal analysis of transmission IR spectra show that the SAM molecular order is sufficient to support a Beer-Lambert determination of the IR optical constants, which yields the observation of a SAM-specific absorbance enhancement. By correlation of the IR absorbance with the SAM dipole layer potential, the enhancement mechanism is attributed to the vibrational moments added by the electronic polarizability in the static field of the SAM. Lastly, the surface Fermi level position is determined by XPS and is used to interpret SPV results in terms of a thiol-induced reduction of the surface cross-section for minority carrier-capture. Numerical analysis confirms this result based on the carrier transport theory of PL intensity by means of a reduction of the surface recombination velocity.
- Génie – Thèses