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dc.contributor.advisorDelorme, François
dc.contributor.authorMachon, Estellefr
dc.date.accessioned2018-07-30T13:03:16Z
dc.date.available2018-07-30T13:03:16Z
dc.date.created2018fr
dc.date.issued2018-07-30
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11143/13142
dc.description.abstractLes sociétés occidentales doivent faire face à plusieurs problématiques au 21e siècle. Certaines se prolongent depuis plusieurs décennies, voire siècles, telles que les conflits et la pauvreté, ainsi que la croissance démographique dans une certaine mesure. D’autres se démarquent par l’intérêt plus récent qui leur est accordé, ce qui est le cas des problèmes environnementaux et des changements climatiques. Or ces enjeux peuvent traverser les frontières, tels que la pollution, ou concerner la plupart des pays, comme la pauvreté. Par conséquent, cela oblige plusieurs États à se concerter pour trouver des solutions ou s’entraider face aux problématiques mondiales. Dans le cas des problèmes environnementaux, les pays occidentaux émettent une quantité immodérée de gaz à effet de serre et ont une empreinte écologique importante. En d’autres mots, il n’est pas possible d’étendre le niveau de vie des occidentaux, tels que les Québécois, les Canadiens ou les Français, à l’ensemble de la population mondiale sans aggraver les dommages aux écosystèmes ni perturber les biens et services que ces derniers fournissent aux sociétés humaines. Néanmoins, de nombreux penseurs ont réfléchi à des alternatives possibles : l’économie de l’environnement qui souhaite indiquer par un prix plus juste le cout environnemental de chaque bien ou service vendu ; l’économie circulaire qui vise à reproduire les cycles naturels en diminuant la quantité de déchets puis en réutilisant les déchets irréductibles pour produire autre chose ; mais aussi des alternatives plus radicales comme la décroissance, la simplicité volontaire ou sobriété heureuse, et l’économie écologique. Deux économistes, Peter Victor et Tim Jackson explorent une forme de prospérité sans croissance. Leur théorie propose notamment de viser l’épanouissement des individus plutôt que la croissance économique. Plusieurs mesures conjointes doivent être mises en place pour s’approcher de l’objectif, dont la réduction du consumérisme et la création de nouveaux indicateurs. Jackson et Victor nuancent leurs propos en explicitant qu’un niveau minimum de revenus ainsi qu’un confort matériel minimal sont nécessaires à la prospérité. Passer ce seuil, l’augmentation des revenus tout comme l’accumulation de biens participent de moins en moins à l’épanouissement des individus sociaux que sont les êtres humains. Ainsi pour éviter la tragédie des communs prédite par Garrett Hardin, l’auteure de l’essai propose d’élargir l’application du principe du pollueur-payeur à l’ensemble des activités marchandes, de viser une justice sociale plus équitable, de s’inspirer des écosystèmes, d’éduquer les générations à venir et de modifier les modes de vie occidentaux.fr
dc.description.abstractWestern societies face several issues in the 21st century. Some are carried over from previous decades or centuries, like conflicts, poverty, and possibly demographic growth; others have more recently come to light including environmental problems and climate change. These issues, whether old or new, could either cross boundaries like pollution, or cause concern to numerous countries as poverty does. As a result, States need to consult each other to rectify these problems and hopefully help one another along the way. In the case of environmental problems, Western countries produce an immoderate quantity of greenhouse gases and, also, produce a large ecological footprint. In other words, the Occidental lifestyle cannot sustainably be spread to other parts of the world, this includes Quebecois, Canadian and French lifestyles. If the entire population of planet Earth were to live the same way, ecosystem damage would worsen while ecosystem goods and services would also be perturbated. Many academics have considered possible alternatives: an environmental economy that implements measures to include the proper price of pollution directly into the cost of goods and services; a circular economy which aims to reproduce natural cycles by reducing waste and reusing it in the creation of other goods; and more extreme alternatives such as decrease, voluntary simplicity or pleasing sobriety, and ecological economy. Two economists, Peter Victor and Tim Jackson explore a kind of prosperity without growth. Their theory aims to suggest individual fulfillment as opposed to economic growth. Several other measures should be settled at the same time to best approach this goal. This includes, among others, reducing consumerism and creating new indicators. Jackson and Victor temper their theory to incorporate a minimum wage and material possessions, both required to achieve prosperity. Over this threshold, an increase in salary or an accumulation of goods reduce the feeling of fulfillment felt by humans as they are social beings. Thus, to avoid a “tragedy of the commons” predicted by Garrett Hardin, the author of the present essay makes five main recommendations: apply the “polluter pays” principle to a large range of mercantile activities, aim for a more equitable social justice, be inspired by ecosystems, teach future generations and adapt the Occidental way of life.fr
dc.description.abstractAbstract: Western societies face several issues in the 21st century. Some are carried over from previous decades or centuries, like conflicts, poverty, and possibly demographic growth; others have more recently come to light including environmental problems and climate change. These issues, whether old or new, could either cross boundaries like pollution, or cause concern to numerous countries as poverty does. As a result, States need to consult each other to rectify these problems and hopefully help one another along the way. In the case of environmental problems, Western countries produce an immoderate quantity of greenhouse gases and, also, produce a large ecological footprint. In other words, the Occidental lifestyle cannot sustainably be spread to other parts of the world, this includes Quebecois, Canadian and French lifestyles. If the entire population of planet Earth were to live the same way, ecosystem damage would worsen while ecosystem goods and services would also be perturbated. Many academics have considered possible alternatives: an environmental economy that implements measures to include the proper price of pollution directly into the cost of goods and services; a circular economy which aims to reproduce natural cycles by reducing waste and reusing it in the creation of other goods; and more extreme alternatives such as decrease, voluntary simplicity or pleasing sobriety, and ecological economy. Two economists, Peter Victor and Tim Jackson explore a kind of prosperity without growth. Their theory aims to suggest individual fulfillment as opposed to economic growth. Several other measures should be settled at the same time to best approach this goal. This includes, among others, reducing consumerism and creating new indicators. Jackson and Victor temper their theory to incorporate a minimum wage and material possessions, both required to achieve prosperity. Over this threshold, an increase in salary or an accumulation of goods reduce the feeling of fulfillment felt by humans as they are social beings. Thus, to avoid a “tragedy of the commons” predicted by Garrett Hardin, the author of the present essay makes five main recommendations: apply the “polluter pays” principle to a large range of mercantile activities, aim for a more equitable social justice, be inspired by ecosystems, teach future generations and adapt the Occidental way of life.fr
dc.language.isofrefr
dc.publisherUniversité de Sherbrookefr
dc.rights© Estelle Machonfr
dc.rightsAttribution - Pas d’Utilisation Commerciale - Partage dans les Mêmes Conditions 2.5 Canada*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ca/*
dc.subjectRevue littérairefr
dc.subjectEnjeux du 21e sièclefr
dc.subjectAlternatives économiquesfr
dc.subjectEmpreinte écologiquefr
dc.subjectGaz à effet de serrefr
dc.subjectMode de vie occidentalfr
dc.subjectLiterature reviewfr
dc.subjectIssues of the 21st centuryfr
dc.subjectEconomic alternativesfr
dc.subjectEcological footprintfr
dc.subjectGreenhouse gasfr
dc.subjectOccidental way of lifefr
dc.titleVivre au 21e siècle dans une société occidentale sans dépasser la capacité de support des écosystèmes tout en bénéficiant des avancées technologiquesfr
dc.typeEssaifr
tme.degree.disciplineEnvironnement et développement durablefr
tme.degree.grantorCentre universitaire de formation en environnement et développement durable (CUFE)fr
tme.degree.levelMaîtrisefr
tme.degree.nameM. Env.fr


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