Abstract : This paper presents two approaches for the fabrication of top-down titanium nanostructures. The first approach involves electron beam lithography followed by a tailored titanium plasma etching. The two main challenges of this process lie in the optimization of the negative tone Ma–N electroresist resolution and in the definition of a controlled titanium etching process for titanium patterns less than 20 nm thick and wide. The second proposed approach is a damascene process where the titanium nanostructures are buried in the oxide. Very shallow and narrow (20 nm × 20 nm) trenches are first patterned in the oxide and nanostructures are obtained by planarization of an evaporated titanium film. The dimensions of the structures are defined by the electron beam lithography resolution and the etching recipe. The third dimension is given by the titanium or any other metal thickness and can be controlled down to few nanometers thanks to the planarization step.