Validation of a new automatic smoking machine to study the effects of cigarette smoke in newborn lambs
Duvareille, Charles; Beaudry, Benoit; St-Hilaire, Marie; Boheimier, Mathieu; Brunel, Cyril; Micheau, Philippe; Praud, Jean-Paul
SubjectEnvironmental tobacco smoke
The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and validate the use of a new, custom-built automatic smoking machine (ASM), primarily designed to study the effects of an environmental tobacco smoke surrogate (ETS surrogate) exposure in animals of various sizes, including large animals. The equipment includes a programmable ASM coupled to a vented whole body chamber, where animals can be exposed to both mainstream and sidestream smoke. The user-friendly interface allows for full programming of puff volume (1-60 mL), time interval between two puffs (1-60 s) and between two cigarettes (1-60 min). Eight newborn lambs were exposed to either 10 (4 lambs, C10 group) or 20 (4 lambs, C20 group) cigarettes, 8 h per day for 15 days. Four additional control, lambs were exposed to air (C0 group). Weight gain was identical in all three groups of lambs. Urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio increased with the number of cigarettes smoked (C0: 11 ± 7 ng/mg; C10: 961 ± 539 ng/mg; C20: 1821 ± 312 ng/mg), with levels in the C10 and C20 groups in keeping with values published in infants exposed to ETS. Overall, results show that our new ASM is especially well suited for ETS surrogate exposure in non-restrained, non-anaesthetized large animals such as sheep.