Effects of postnatal environmental tobacco smoke on non-nutritive swallowing-breathing coordination in newborn lambs
Duvareille, Charles; St-Hilaire, Marie; Samson, Nathalie; Bakirtzian, Parseh; Brisebois, Simon; Boheimier, Mathieu; Djeddi, Djamal-Dine; Doueik, Alexandre A.; Praud, Jean-Paul
While prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome, the effect of postnatal ETS exposure is less clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of postnatal ETS exposure on non-nutritive swallowing (NNS) and NNS-breathing coordination, which are crucial to prevent aspiration related-cardiorespiratory events. Eighteen newborn lambs (6 per group) were randomly exposed to either 10 cigarettes/day, 20 cigarettes/day or room air for 15 days. Lambs were instrumented for recording states of alertness, swallowing, electrocardiogram and breathing; recordings were performed in non-sedated lambs at the end of ETS exposure. Urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio confirmed relevant real-life exposure. Postnatal ETS exposure had no effect on NNS frequency but tended to decrease inspiratory NNS (p=0.07) during quiet sleep. No effect on respiratory or heart rate (p>0.6), apnea index (p=0.2) or sleep states (p=0.3) was observed. In conclusion, postnatal ETS exposure in lambs had only mild effects on NNS-breathing coordination.