The effect of tissue mechanical characterization and stimulation parameters on live tissue mechanobiological progression with regard to viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity
Tissue characterization is a major step in tissue mechanobiological studies. By characterization methods, tissue quality i.e. the combination of tissue structural, compositional and mechanical properties, is determined. This research focuses on mechanical characterization methods. Among all mechanical characterization methods, we propose those ones which are: 1) Non-destructive, (i.e. that reserves the capability of doing other characterization tests at the end of mechanical test; and, 2) In-line, (that enables tissue progression observation during experiment, and without transferring the specimen from one apparatus to another). However, in-line characterization raises the question of whether conducting tissue observation methods during experimentation modifies tissue progression over time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to deepen our knowledge about the parameters which could affect tissue quality during mechanical testing. This requires a better understanding of viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity, two key behaviors of tissue, affecting the impact of these parameters (e.g. tissue quality, stimulation parameters) on the response of live tissue to biophysical stimuli. Thus, the objectives of this study were: 1. To review the literature to find information about two mechanical behaviors of tissue i.e. viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity, and the way they affect tissue properties 2. To investigate whether diagnostic tests, as mechanical characterization tests to observe tissue properties, affect tissue progression We explain that viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of tissue originate from structure and components of the extracellular matrix. We also describe the way they affect tissue dynamic competition between repair, enzymatic degradation and mechanical degradation of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, we specify some tissue stimulation parameters, such as stimulation control type or stimulus history, which could affect tissue progression in response to biophysical stimuli because of viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity. Moreover, by conducting a series of 3-day experiments on frshly extracted tendons, we investigated whether applying "stress relaxation" tests at physiological amplitudes affects tissue response. We divided the tendons into two groups based on the characterization protocol (24 and 0 stress relaxation tests each day), and compared the progression of these groups over time. The stress relaxation tests at physiological amplitude modified tissue response to mechanical stimuli in vitro . In general, the modulus increased for 0 stress relaxation tests, while it first decreased and then increased slightly for 24 stress relaxation tests each day. The difference of mechanical properties between the two groups was significant. Therefore, applying stress relaxation tests at physiological amplitude during the rest periods between mechanical stimuli can affect live tissue progression over time. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of tissue while developing a stimulation protocol for bioreactor studies or clinical applications.
- Génie – Thèses