Punching shear behaviour of concrete two-way slabs reinforced with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars
Hassan, Mohamed Ashour Wardany
Deterioration of reinforced-concrete (RC) structures due to corrosion of steel limits the service-life and increases the rehabilitation costs. Concrete slabs in parking structures deteriorate faster than any other structural elements because of direct exposure to high concentrations of chlorides used for snow and ice removal-during winter seasons. The use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars as an alternative to conventional steel has emerged as a realistic and cost-effective solution to overcome the corrosion problems, particularly for concrete structure exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Design of RC flat slabs is often compromised by their ability to resist shear stresses at the punching-shear surface area. The connections between slabs and supporting columns could be susceptible to high shear stresses and might cause brittle and sudden punching-shear failure. These connections may become the starting points leading to catastrophic punching-shear failure of a flat slab system when the steel reinforcement corrodes. Extensive research work has been conducted on the punching-shear behaviour of steel-reinforced flat slabs. The punching-shear strength of RC flat slabs reinforced with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars, however, is yet to be fully investigated and understood. This is due to the limited research work on the subject and to the numerous parameters affecting punching-shear behaviour. In addition, the current FRP design codes and guidelines do not provide rational design models addressing the contribution of the FRP as shear reinforcement (stirrups) for FRP-RC flat slabs. Thus, this study aims at investigating the punching-shear behaviour of concrete two-way slabs reinforced in flexure with GFRP bars. The investigation included two-way test specimens without shear reinforcement and others with carbon or glass FRP stirrups to evaluate the performance of specimens without shear reinforcement and the effect of shear reinforcement on the punching-capacity and performance. To achieve this, experimental and analytical studies were conducted. The experimental program included twenty-six interior slab-column connections reinforced with GFRP bars and two specimens reinforced with steel bars for comparisons. The specimens were tested through two phases. Phase I, focused on the two-way slabs without shear reinforcement and the investigated parameters were: (i) flexural reinforcement ratio (ranged from 0.34% to 1.66%) and type (steel and GFRP); (ii) GFRP compression reinforcement; (iii) slab thickness (200 mm and 350 mm); (v) column dimensions (300 × 300 mm and 450 × 450 mm); (iv) concrete strength (normal and high-strength concretes). Phase II, focused on the use of FRP shear reinforcement (stirrups) and its effectiveness and contribution to the punching-shear capacity. The test variables considered in Phase II were: (i) the material of stirrups (carbon and glass FRP); (ii) shear reinforcement ratio; (iii) stirrup spacing; (iv) the effect of flexural reinforcement ratio on the effectiveness of the shear reinforcement. The effect of the different parameters considered in the two phases of the experimental work were presented and discussed in four journal papers. Moreover, the test results and the findings contributed to the first field implementation of GFRP bars in two flat slabs parking garages in Québec's city, which were Québec's city hall (Québec, Canada, 2010) and La Chancelière parking garage (the world's first flat-slab parking garage totally reinforced with GFRP bars) (Québec, Canada, 2011). On the other hand, the analytical study included assessing the accuracy of the current punching-shear design provisions through comparing the test results of the specimens tested herein and 35 specimens from literature. The provisions included CSA 8806-12 (2012), ACI 440 (2006), BS 8110 (1997), and JSCE (1997).
- Génie – Thèses