Shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) stirrups
Ahmed, Ehab Abdul-Mageed
Corrosion of steel reinforcement is a major cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures especially those exposed to harsh environmental conditions such as bridges, concrete pavements, and parking garages. The climatic conditions may have a hand in accelerating the corrosion process when large amounts of salts are used for ice removal during winter season. These conditions normally accelerate the need of costly repairs and may lead, ultimately, to catastrophic failure. Therefore, using the non-corrodible fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials as an alternative reinforcement in prestressed and reinforced concrete structures is becoming a more accepted practice in structural members subjected to severe environmental exposure. This, in turn, eliminates the potential of corrosion and the associated deterioration. Stirrups for shear reinforcement normally enclose the longitudinal reinforcement and are thus the closest reinforcement to the outer concrete surface. Consequently, they are more susceptible to severe environmental conditions and may be subjected to related deterioration, which reduces the service life of the structure. Thus, replacing the conventional stirrups with the non-corrodible FRP ones is a promising aspect to provide more protection for structural members subjected to severe environmental exposure. However, from the design point of view, the direct replacement of steel with FRP bars is not possible due to various differences in the mechanical and physical properties of the FRP materials compared to steel. These differences include higher tensile strength, lower modulus of elasticity, different bond characteristics, and absence of a yielding plateau in the stress-strain relationships of FRP materials. Moreover, the use of FRP as shear reinforcement (stirrups) for concrete members has not been sufficiently explored to provide a rational model and satisfactory guidelines to predict the shear strength of concrete members reinforced with such type of stirrups. An experimental program to investigate the structural performance of FRP stirrups as shear reinforcement for concrete beams was conducted. The experimental program included seven large-scale T-beams reinforced with FRP and steel stirrups. Three beams were reinforced with CFRP stirrups, three beams reinforced with GFRP stirrups, and one beam reinforced with steel stirrups. The geometry of the T-beam was selected to simulate the New England Bulb Tee Beam (NEBT) that is being used by the Ministry of Transportation of Québec (MTQ), Canada. The beams were 7.0 m long with a T-shaped cross section measuring a total height of 700 mm, web width of 180 mm, flange width of 750 mm, and flange thickness of 85 mm. The large-scale T-beams were constructed using normal-strength concrete and tested in four-point bending over a clear span of 6.0 m till failure to investigate the modes of failure and the ultimate capacity of the FRP stirrups in beam action. The test variables considered in this investigation were the material of the stirrups, shear reinforcement ratio, and stirrup spacing. The specimens were designed to fail in shear to utilize the full capacity of the FRP stirrups. Six beams failed in shear due to FRP (carbon and glass) stirrup rupture or steel stirrup yielding. The seventh beam, reinforced with CFRP stirrups spaced at d /4, failed in flexure due to yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement followed by crushing of concrete. The effects of the different test parameters on the shear behaviour of the concrete beams reinforced with FRP stirrups were presented and discussed. The test results contributed to amending the shear provisions incorporated in the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CAN/CSA-S6) and the updated provisions were approved in the CSA-S6-Addendum (CSA 2009). An analytical investigation was conducted to evaluate the validity and accuracy of available FRP codes and guidelines in Japan, Europe, and North America. The predictions of the codes and the guidelines were verified against the results of the tested beams as well as 24 other beams reinforced with FRP stirrups from the literature. The tested beams were also analysed using various shear theories including the modified compression field theory (MCFT), the shear friction model (SFM), and the unified shear strength model (USSM). A simple equation for predicting the shear crack width in concrete beams reinforced with FRP stirrups is proposed and verified against the experimentally measured values.
- Génie – Thèses