Performance des bétons autoplaçants développés pour la préfabrication d'éléments de ponts précontraints
Long, Wu Jian
In the precast construction market, the competitive situation is significantly affected by price, cost, productivity, and quality factors. Since self-consolidating concrete (SCC) was first introduced to the concrete industry in the late 1980s, it has been used worldwide in variety of applications. Despite the documented technical and economic advantages of SCC in precast, prestressed applications, the use of SCC has been limited in some countries due to some technical uncertainties of such innovative material. To explore some unsolved issues related to SCC and to contribute to a wider acceptance of SCC in precast, prestressed applications, this study was undertaken to assess the effect of mixture proportioning and material characteristics on the performance of SCC and recommend performance-based specifications for use of SCC in the precast, prestressed applications. The thesis presents an experimental program that contains four parts: (1) a parametric study to evaluate the influence of binder type, w/cm, coarse aggregate type, and coarse aggregate nominal size on the modulus of elasticity and compressive strength developments; (2) a parametric study to evaluate the effect of mixture proportioning and material characteristics on fresh and hardened properties of SCC; (3) a fractional factorial design to identify the relative significance of primary mixture parameters and their coupled effects on SCC properties; and (4) a field validation using full-scale AASHTO Type II girders cast to investigate constructability, material properties, and structural performance (the latter part was carried out by the research team of Professor Denis Mitchell at McGill University). Based on the experimental test results, SCC exhibits similar compressive strength and modulus of elasticity to that of conventional high-performance concrete (HPC) of normal slump consistency. SCC and HPC mixtures made of a given binder type exhibit similar autogenous shrinkage. However, SCC exhibits up to 30% and 20% higher drying shrinkage and creep, respectively, at 300 days compared to HPC made with similar w/cm but different paste volume. The results of the experiment program show that among the investigated material constituents and mix design parameters, the w/cm has the most significant effect on mechanical and visco-elastic properties. The binder content, binder type, and sand-to-total aggregate ratio (S/A) also have considerable effect on those properties. The thickening-type viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) content (0 to 150 ml/100 kg CM) does not significantly affect mechanical and visco-elastic properties. Based on the findings, some mixture parameters regarding the overall performance of SCC designated for precast and prestressed applications can be recommended: SCC made with relatively low w/cm (such as 0.34 vs. 0.40) should be selected to ensure desirable compressive strength, modulus of elasticity (MOE), flexural strength, as well as less drying shrinkage and creep; the use of crushed aggregate with 12.5 mm MSA is suggested since it provides better mechanical properties of SCC compared to gravel; the use of low S/A (such as 0.46 vs. 0.54) to secure adequate mechanical and visco-elastic properties is recommended; the use of thickening-type VMA can help to secure robustness and stability of the concrete in the case of SCC proportioned with moderate and relatively high w/cm; and the use of Type MS cement can lead to lower creep and shrinkage than Type HE cement and 20% Class F fly ash. However, SCC mixtures made with Type HE cement and 20% Class F fly ash can result in better workability and mechanical properties. Therefore, it is recommended to use Type HE cement and 20% Class F fly ash and reduce binder content (such as 440 kg/m[exposant 3] vs. 500 kg/m[exposant 3]) to assure better overall performance of SCC. Validation on full-scale AASHTO-Type II girders using two HPC and two SCC mixtures show that girders casting with SCC can be successfully carried out without segregation and blocking for the selected optimized mixtures. The surface quality of the girders cast with SCC is quite satisfactory and of greater uniformity than girders cast with HPC. Both HPC and SCC mixtures develop similar autogenous shrinkage for mixtures made with similar w/cm. Again, the two evaluated SCC mixtures develop about 20% greater drying shrinkage than comparable HPC mixtures. Modifications of existing models to assess mechanical and visco-elastic properties of SCC used in the precast, prestressed applications are proposed. Based on the comparisons of various code provisions, the ACI 209 and CEB-FIP codes with suggested material coefficients can be recommended to estimate compressive strength. The modified AASHTO 2007 model can be used for predicting the elastic modulus and flexural strength. The AASHTO 2004 and 2007 models with suggested material coefficients can be used to estimate drying shrinkage and creep, respectively. The CEB-FIP 90 code model can be used to predict both drying shrinkage and creep. Finally, the modified Tazawa and Miyazawa 1997 model with material modifications can be used to estimate autogenous shrinkage of SCC.
- Génie – Thèses