Numerical analysis of subsonic laminar flow aerothermodynamics in microturbomachinery and development of a design methodology
This thesis presents the numerical and analytical study of the aerodynamic and heat transfer in laminar subsonic cascades along with the development of design guidelines and procedures to improve the design of microfabricated multistage radial turbines operating at low Reynolds number. Numerical analysis was performed on 24 cascade geometries using 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for over 100 flow conditions for each cascade. Two dimensional correlations were extracted from CFD for profile and mixing losses, deviation and heat transfer. These correlations include Reynolds number and compressibility effects, and take into account incidence and various geometrical parameters (solidity, stagger, blade angles, thickness and mean-line distribution). Adaptation of losses to account for three dimensional effects and correlation for blockage were derived from analytical relationships. A turbomachinery simulation software based on mean-line analysis and conservation of rothalpy incorporating the developed correlations was programmed. The software can be adapted as for the physic it uses and the turbine configuration it analyses (axial, radial inward or outward, single or multi stage). The pressure profiles obtained from simulation were found to be in good agreement with experimental data for cold turbine tests. Design guidelines and charts are provided as well as cycle analysis considering microfabrication limitations. A considerable increase in stage isentropic efficiency compared to previous devices can result from the use of slender blades, lower solidity cascades and aspect ratios of 0.5, suggesting efficiencies as high as 85% for Re > 700. The study shows that higher power density and multistage matching can be achieved through the radial outward configuration. Two designs are presented, a single stage turbine for the next generation of microturbopump prototype and a turbine configuration with four rotors and 10 stages for closed Rankine cycle providing 50.7 W of net mechanical power.
- Génie – Mémoires