Reformage de l'éthanol au dioxyde de carbone
The catalytic reaction of ethanol with CO2 , defined as the dry reforming of ethanol, is a method to produce synthesis gas (Syngas), a mixture of H2 and CO, and simultaneously to sequester the greenhouse effect gas CO2 in the form of carbon nano-filaments. This reaction is favoured at high temperatures on catalytic surfaces. High energy consumption of this reaction and the deactivation of catalyst are the principal reasons of the absence of industrial applications for this type of reaction. One of the challenges is, therefore, to find an active catalytic formulation which can sequester CO 2 in the form of carbon nano-filaments, a valuable product, without losing its activity.The marketing of the carbon nano-filaments should be able to compensate for the cost of the energy consumption, due to the endothermicity of the reactions. This master project studies the catalytic properties of the carbon steel for the reaction of dry reforming of ethanol.The specific objective is to investigate the performance of carbon steel as the catalyst and to understand the mechanisms of the reforming of ethanol with CO 2 over this catalyst.The effect of the conditions of pretreatment of catalyst on its activity as well as on the properties of the carbon nano-filaments is studied.The tests are carried out using an isothermal fixed bed laboratory reactor. Catalytic surfaces and carbon deposited are analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), and XRD (X ray diffraction) while analyses by GC make it possible to evaluate the extent of the reaction and to make the mass and energy balances.The results obtained are as follows: (1) Carbon steel catalyzes both reactions of ethanol dry reforming and ethanol cracking (2) An oxidative pre-treatment is necessary to activate the catalytic properties of carbon steel (3) Carbon deposit under the form of carbon nano-filaments was obtained without reducing the catalytic activity of carbon steel (4) These nano-filaments preserve the catalytic activity because of the presence of carbides inserted in their tubular structure.
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